Goddesses of the Calendar Month:
Demeter and Persephone
Rosea and The Sun
Jewish: ST. ELIZABETH and THE VIRGIN MARY. (Irish Catholic Dir.) “July 2nd. The Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary ... Preface
of B.V.M. Et te in Visitatione.” (Church of
England Cal.) “July 2nd. The Visitation of the Virgin Mary”.
(Luke, i. 39) “And Mary arose in those days, and
went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Juda;
“And entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elizabeth …
56) “And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house”.
(The Book of James,
XII. 2) “And Mary ... went away unto
Elizabeth her kinswoman: and she knocked at the door. And Elizabeth when
it cast down the scarlet (al. the wool) and
ran to the door and opened it, and when she saw Mary she blessed her ...
3) ... Now she was sixteen years old …”
(Bridgett, Our Lady’s
Dowry, p. 235) “The feast of our Lady’s Visitation was instituted by Urban VII in the Fourteenth Century
... In 1441 the feast was confirmed by the Council of Basle, and fixed for the 2nd July”.
(Mrs. Jameson, Legends of the Madonna,
p. 189) “The
earliest representation of the Visitation to
which I can refer is a rude but not ungraceful drawing, in the catacombs
of two women embracing. It is not of very
high antiquity, perhaps the seventh or eighth century, but there can be
about the subject”.
(Bridgett, Our Lady’s Dowry, p. 325) “On
the feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin (1499) Andrew Lyall,
Treasurer of the Cathedral [in Aberdeen],
made a present of a large silver statute of our Lady of Pity, weighing
to the high altar. Thereupon William the
Bishop made an ordinance that this statue should be ‘carried in
round the Cathedral on all the solemn feasts
of the Glorious Virgin, and granted forty days’ indulgence to all who
devoutly follow in the procession’. (Aberdeen Registers, published by the Spalding
Dog Days begin.
Egyptian: SOTHIS; ISIS; SATET; HATHOR; Sirius, The Dogstar.
Greek: MAERA; HECUBA; The Dog-star. Roman:
CANICULA, The Dog-star. Arabian: Al' SHIRA, Sirius; Al' GHUMAISA, Procyon; Al' ALIAWAT AL SUHAIL, The Two Dog-stars. Polynesian: VENA,
(Allen, Star Names, p. 123) “Sirius,
the Dog-star ... [At Thebes] it was symbolized, under the title of Isis
Hathor, by the form of a cow with disc and
horns appearing from behind the western hills Great prominence is given
to it on
the square zodiac of Denderah, where it is
figured as a cow recumbent in a boat with head surmounted by a star; and
immediately following as the goddess Sothis
... But in the earlier temple service of Denderah it was Isis Sothis, at
Isis Sati, or Satit.”
(Liddell and Scott, Lex.) “Maira, fem. (Marmairó) name of the dog-star, strictly the Sparkler Anth. P. 9. 555, Nonn.: also of Hecuba [as bitch], Lyc. 334 …”
… A little dog or bitch Meton: The
heat-bringing Dog-star.” (Allen, Star Names, p. 132) “Canis Minor, the
Lesser Dog ... Hyginus had Icarium Astrum,
referring to the dog Maera.”
(Allen, id. p. 121) “Sirius ... Al Shi’rá
or Al Si’rá.” (id.
p. 132) “Canis Minor ... We also find
Al Jummaizá, their Sycamine, although some
say that this should be Al Ghumaisá, the Dim ... from the fact that
her light was dimmer than that of her sister
Al Shi’rá ... the Two Dog-Stars were the Arabs’ Al Aliawat
al Suhail, the Sisters of Canopus.”
(Allen, id. p. 134) “Procyon
... With the natives of the Hervey Islands it was their goddess Vena.”
p. 188) “Dog Days.
- The days about the heliacal rising of the Dog Star, noted
from ancient times as the hottest ... period
of the year in the Northern hemisphere. Their incidence has been
as depending on the Greater or Lesser Dog
Star (Sirius or Procyon) and their duration has been reckoned as from 30
to 54 days.
A generally accepted period is from July 3 to
also under Section II: Egypt, Sothis, and below: July 23rd, Sothis.
PAX. (Seyffert, Dict.)
... the corresponding deity among the Romans
was Pax, to whom an altar was set up on July 4th, 13 (before this era)”.
“Ara Pacis ... on north and south [is] a rendering of the procession
on the consecration day (4th July 13) with
portraits of the imperial family and figures of lectors, priests,
and representatives of the Roman people.
These reliefs rank among the most important products of Augustan art.
reliefs on the inner altar showing Vestals,
priests, etc., continue the procession on the inner walls”. See also
Roman: JUNO; The Nonae
Caprotinae. (Seyffert, Dict.) “Caprotina. A Roman epithet of Juno. A
special feast, called the Nonae Caprotinae,
was celebrated in her honour on the Nones
of Quintilis, or 7th of July ... the female
servants went in procession to the fig-tree, where they carried on all
sports with the assembled multitude. Besides
this, there was ... a festal meal at the tree, and on the next day a
celebrated by the pontifices”. (Rose, O.C.D.,
“the Nonae Caprotinae (7th July), i.e. Nones of the Wild Fig
under which maidservants had a sham fight
with stones, etc., and abused each other. It seems to be an old rite of
(fig-juice as equivalent to milk?...) grown
Ling. Lat. VI.
18) “The Nones of July are called the Caprotine Nones, because
on this day, in Latium, the women make
offerings to Juno Caprotina, which they do under a caprificus ‘wild
they use a branch from the fig-tree”.
9) “On the Roman Festivals (2nd hall of 4th cent.) ... I will make
mention also of the feast held in the Nonae
Caprotinae when matrons doff their robes to clothe their handmaidens.”
PALES; The Parilia, Second Festival.
(Rose, O.C.D.) Parilia ... (cf. Palibus II. Fast.
Antiates on 7th July).” See also under April 21st.
Chinese: CHIH-NU, THE HEAVENLY WEAVER-GIRL: See under
Japanese: ORIHIME, SHOKUJO, TANABATA HIME, THE HEAVENLY WEAVER-GIRL:
The Tanabata Festival. (Hepburn, Dict.) “Tanabata. The festival of the
Weaver or the star Vega, near the Milky Way, worshipped on the 7th day of the 7th Month”. (Allen, Star Names, p. 58) “The Korean
version … turns the cowherd into a Prince and the spinster into
his Bride ... they accomplish [their meeting]
through the friendly aid of the good-natured magpies, who congregate
parts of the kingdom during the 7th moon, and
on its 7th night form the fluttering bridge across which the lovers
(Chamberlain, Things Japanese, p. 160) “Festivals ... July 7th. Tanabata. The
idea of this festival is most poetic”. (id. p. 437). “The Herdsman
is a star in Aquila, the Weaver is the star
Vega. They dwell on opposite sides of the ‘Celestial River’, or Milky
Way and ... meet on the 7th night of the 7th
moon, a night held sacred to them, strips of paper with poetic effusions
honour being stuck on stems of bamboo grass
and set up in various places”.
(Fell. of Isis Dir.) “July 7th: Chin Nu, Tanabata-Hime,
the Heavenly Weaver-girl”.
Roman: JUNO; Nonae Caprotinae, Second day. See under July 7th.
Jewish: ST. ELIZABETH (Irish
Catholic Dir.) “July 8th ... S. Elizabeth”.
Greek-Egyptian: ARSINOË II, VENUS ZEPHYRITIS; The Deification
of Arsinoe. (The Diegesis,
cited by Trypanis, on Callimachus, p. 162) “Deification
of Arsinoë (The poet) says that ... an altar
and a holy enclosure were established in her honour near the Emporium
at Alexandria).” According to Trypanis, the
deification of Arsinoë, sister and wife of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus),
would have been initiated on July 9th, 270,
before this era.”
(Callimachus, Ektheosis Arsinoes,
frag.) “O bride, already up under the stars
of the Wain ... snatched away, you were speeding past the (full) moon
the great husband for his wife ... to light
fires as an offering (?) …”
“Arsinoe … worshipped
under the name of Venus Zephyritis.
Dinochares began to build her a temple with loadstones, in which there
stood a statue
of Arsinoe, suspended in the air …”
Anglo-Saxon and Norse:
HOLDA and HEL. (Graves, The White Goddess,
p. 405) “[in] the ‘Lady Godiva’ procession of
Southam (twelve miles south of Coventry and included in Leofric’s
earldom) two figures were carried, one white
and one black - the goddess as Holda and Hel.” See also below.
English: GODGIFU, LADY GODIVA. (Lewis, Top. Dict.)
“Southam, a market town
and parish in the county of Warwick … fairs
are held on ... July 10th, for cattle and horses; the last of these is
a show fair, at which, in imitation of that
at Coventry, the procession of Lady Godiva is celebrated”.
See also under Moveable Festivals: Friday after Trinity Sunday.
Cretan or Italian: THEANO. (Perp. Fest. Cal.) “July 11th. Theano, wife of Pythagoras, born 6th century (before this era)”.
(Fell. of Isis Dir.) “July 11th. Pythagoras and his wife Theano. Vegetarianism.
Geometry and Mathematics”.
Theano, according to Lempriere (Class. Dict.),
was a native either of Crete or Crotona.
“The second model ... shall be the famous
Theano … Theano shall contribute the greatness of her intellect.”
Japanese: Bon Festival. (Chamberlain, Things Japanese,
p. 160) “July 13-16. This is the great
Buddhist Festival of Bon, which is often termed by foreigners the Feast
but might better be rendered as All Souls’
Day. The spirits of the dead ancestors then visit the altar sacred to
in each household, and special offerings of
food are made to them”.
p. 854) “The resemblance between the Feast of
Samain (Note: See November 1st.) when the dead returned to visit their
friends, and the great festivals formerly
held in the Sinto temples of Japan, as, for example, at Nikko, where
lanterns were lighted, each one representing
the spirit of an ancestor, and where masquerading and revelry took place
the diversion of the spirits then visiting
the world, is very remarkable and significant of primitive unity of
account of such festivals and of the splendid
ritual accompanying them, will be found in verse in the ‘Ancient Book
of China’, called the ‘She King’.”
(Perp. Fest. Cal.) “July 13th ... Japanese Buddhist Commemoration of the Departed,
13th - 15th”.
Finnish: RAUNI. (Catherine
Koppana, Ms.) “Rauni is described by Ganander as the wife of Ukko the Thunder
God, a sort of Juno. The name comes from ‘ronn’ or ‘raun’, the Nordic names for Rowan. Again a tree
goddess of some kind. She appears in earlier folklore. Her Feast Day is July 15th”.
Jewish: THE VIRGIN MARY. (Irish Catholic
Dir.) “July 16th. Commemoration of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel ... Preface of B.V.M. Et te in commemoratione”.
(Ashe, The Virgin,
p. 201) on the festivals of the Blessed Virgin Mary: “The
Carmelite Order, which held her in special
reverence and hymned her as Flower of Carmel, allotted her no fewer that
days of its calendar”. Among the festivals
observed by them in the mid-twentieth century are included “Our Lady,
Mediatrix of all Graces”, “Our Lady of
Ransom” and “The Most Holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary”.
(Perp. Fest. Cal.)
“July 16. All Communities”.
Japanese: AMA-TERASU-O-MI-KAMI, THE SUN GODDESS. (Herbert, Shinto,
p. 209) on Japanese
Festivals: “July 17th from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.
the first procession takes place; this is the Yama-hoko-junko, which
of the following twenty floats ... (19) The
Iwato-Yama, representing the three Kami Izanagi, (Ame-no)
and Amaterasu-o-mi-kami”. (id.) “It is interesting to note that some sections
of Haydn’s ‘Creation’ have been adapted to choral songs which describe Amaterasu-o-mikami’s coming
out of the Rock-dwelling of Heaven. (Anesaki)”.
OKINAGA-TARASHI-HIME, THE EMPRESS JINGO. (Herbert, id.)
on other floats in the same procession (see
above): (14) The Urade-Yama represents Jingu-Kogo carrying out
(20) The Funa-hoko, in the shape of a ship
(funa), which carried Jingu-kogo in her expedition to Korea. The Empress
in it clad in red armour”. See also under May
Egyptian: ISIS; MUT. The Opet Festival. The Marriage of Isis and Osiris. (Fell.
of Isis Dir.) “July 19th. Opet Festival. Union of Isis and Osiris. Twin Souls. Spritual Union”.
(Christiane Desroches - Noblecourt, Tutankhamen, p. 185) “Every
year in the month of Paophi, the second month of the floods, came the
of eleven days during which the capital
celebrated the feast of Opet ... Ipet (Opet) - esut was the name of the
Karnak ... it was to this temple that Amun
and his spouse Mut, accompanied by the god Khonsu, proceeded
ceremonially at the
time of this ‘divine emergence’, giving the
crowd a glimpse of the triad of its three great gods. With the return
of the royal family to Thebes, the feast of
Opet recovered its lustre, and the majestic and festive spectacle it
on the banks of the Nile and round the
temples so impressed Tutankhamen, that he had all its phases sculpted”.
Vanderlip, on Isidorus, p. 27) “The Egyptian new
year, which began theoretically with the
coming of the Nile flood, was also celebrated as the marriage of Isis.”
also July 23rd.
APHRODITE AND VENUS; The Adonia, in honour of Aphrodite or Venus and Adonis. (Walton,
“The Adonia ... At Alexandria the Rites consisted of a magnificent
pageant of the wedding of Adonis and
Aphrodite ... There was, perhaps, considerable variation in the content
as in the date
of the festival ... In fifth-century Athens
they were held in April, in Ptolemaic Egypt perhaps in September, while
the Empire, the accepted date was 19th July”.
Syrian: ST. MARGARET, of Antioch. (Irish Catholic Dir.) “-
July 20 ... S. Margaret, Virgin …” (Church of England Cal.) “July
20th. Margaret, Virgin …” (Enc. Brit. 1812 ed.) “Margaret, St …
The Orientals pay reverence to her by the name of Saint Pelagia or Saint Marina, and the western church by that of Saint Geruma or Saint Margaret.” Her date is given as the second half of the third century.
Greek: DAMO. (Perp. Fest. Cal.) “July 21. Damo …”
(Lempriere, Dict.) on Damo, daughter of Theano wife of Pythagoras: “Damo ... Pythagoras at his death entrusted her
with all the secrets of his philosophy, and gave her the unlimited care of his compositions Laert.
Sun enters Leo (tropical).
Jewish: ST. MARY MAGDALENE. (Irish Catholic Dir. and Church of England Cal.) “July 22nd. S. Mary Magdalene”.
Egyptian: SOPDET, SOTHIS. (Fell. of
Isis Dir.) “July 23rd. Festival of the Rise of Sothis-Sirius. Star of Isis. Stellar Beings. Awareness of the
(Gardiner, Egy. Grammar, p. 205) “It must
have been early recognised that the Nile began to rise afresh about the
same time (near July 19th of the Julian
Calendar) that the brilliant star Sirius (the dog-star), after having
for a prolonged period, was first again
observed in the sky shortly before sunrise. Consequently this latter
by modern astronomers as the heliacal rising
of Sirius and by the Egyptians as prt Spdt
‘the going up of (the goddess) Sothis’, came to be regarded as the true New Year’s Day (wpt-rnpt, ‘the opening of the year’), i.e. ... ‘first month of inundation, day 1’ ”.
(Fagan, Zodiacs Old and New,
p. 14) on the three New Year festivals of Egypt: “The
third New Year’s Day is that of the Heliacal
Rising of the ‘Arrow-Star’ Sirius, which heralded the 1st day
of the Sothic year”. See also under July 3rd.
Roman: SALACIA. (Seyffert, Dict.) “Salacia. A Roman goddess of the salt water. She was identified with the Greek Amphitrite, and
regarded as the wife of Neptune.” (O.C.D.) “Salacia, cult-partner of Neptunus
(Gellius 13.23.2), probably the numen
of springing water (root of salire ...); Neptunus
is a deity originally of fresh water”. (Rose,
O.C.D.) “Neptunus ... His festival is of the oldest series (Neptunalia,
23 July); we know concerning its ritual only
that arbours, umbrae, of boughs were commonly erected (Festus …) but it
may be conjectured that its object was to
obtain sufficient water at this hot and dry time of year.”
(Philocalus, Kal. anno 354)
“July 23. Neptunalici.”
Roman: FURRINA; The Furrinalia. (van Buren, O.C.D.)
(preferable to Furina), a divinity belonging
to the earliest stratum of Roman religion; she possessed a grove, and
festival (Furrinalia, 25th July), and a flamen
... Furrina. may have been a divinity of a spring or of springs”.
Ling. Lat. VI.
19) “The Furrinalia, Festival of Furrina, for this day is a state
holiday for this goddess; honour was paid to
her among the ancients, who instituted an annual offering to her, and
to her a special priest”. Note: (Cicero, De Nat. Deorum,
III. 46) on the Eumenides:
“And if they are goddesses, - and they have a
temple at Athens, and the Grove of Furina at Rome, as I interpret that
name, also belongs to them, - the Furies are
goddesses, presumably in their capacity of detectors and avengers of
Jewish: St. Anne. (Irish
Catholic Dir.) “July 26th. St. Anne, Mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary”. (Church
of England Cal.) “July 26th. St. Anne”.
Egyptian: HATSHEPSUT, Queen of Egypt. (Perp. Fest. Cal.) “Hatshepsut,
Egyptian Queen - Initiate, suggested date, 1500 (before this era)”. (Fell. of Isis
Dir.) “Queen Hatshepsut, Pharaoh. Architecture. Peaceful art of government”.
Samian: PYTHAIS. (Perp. Fest. Cal.)
“July 28th. Pythais, mother of Pythagoras”.
ST. MARTHA. (Irish Catholic Dir.) “July
29th. St. Martha, Virgin.”
German-Russian: HELENA BLAVATSKY, Occultist. (Josephine Ransom, in The Secret Doctrine, Preface,
Vol. I. p. 13) “Helena Petrovna Hahn was born
at the midnight hour between 30 and 31 July (in the Russian Calendar 12
August) 1831, at Ekaterinoslav”.
Celtic: Oidhche Lúghnasa, August Eve.
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