Goddesses of the Calendar
Celtic: Lúghnasa. (Dinneen, Dict.) “Lughnas, Lughnasa, the Kalends of August; the August or Harvest Games, held in honour of Lugh
in ancient times, even on the continent, esp. at Lyons (Lugudunum); Mí Lughnasa,
August, Lá Lughnasa, Lammas Day, the first of August; Oidhche Lughnasa, August Eve …”
Lá Bron Troghain, The Day of
the Parturition. (Dineen, Dict.) “Troghan, parturition, sunrise (or sunset),
August (O’Reilly), Autumn; earth (Révue Celt. xi. 442) ... Lá
Bron Troghan, 1st August; mís troghain, August an early and cryptic word”.
THE EARTH GODDESS, THE EARTH MOTHER. (McLean, Fire Fest. pp. 20 and 22)
“Lammas, or Lughnasad, the Celtic festival of the beginning of Autumn
thus the festival marking the transformation
of the goddess into her Earth Mother aspect, and it seems likely, as
Tailltenn Fair, that the sites most sacred at
this time of the cycle were the mounds ... of the Earth Goddess”. (id.
p. 21) on Lughnasad: “the community reflected on the reality that the
of the Goddess, having come to fruition, from
Lammas on would enter the Earth and slowly become transformed into the
-- Hecate-Cailleach aspect which would emerge
Irish: CARMAN. (Joyce, Soc.
Hist. Ireland, Vol. II. p. 441) “The Fair of Carman.” The people of Leinster held a provincial aenach at
Carman or Wexford, once every three years, which began on Lughnasad
the first of August, and ended on the sixth
... if the fair was duly held, they were promised various blessings -
prosperity, corn, milk, fruit ... in
abundance; and freedom from subjection to any other province … Women
conspicuous part in this fair, and of course
in all others ... The women had aireachts of their own to discuss those
specially pertaining to women”. Note:
(Borlase, Dolmens, Vol. III. p. 829) Carman
and her three sons, according to this account, “came from Athens to Wexford”.
(Anne Ross, Pagan Celtic Britain,
p. 226) on Irish festivals:
“Another goddess, Carman, in whose honour a
seasonal festival was established, exhibits to a marked degree the
of the magical
powers of the female as opposed to the physical force employed by the
male Here we have a local goddess retained
... by an incoming race, and finally honoured by means of a seasonal
(The Dindshenchas, cited
by Macalister, Tara, p. 157) on the fair of Carman:
“Carman site of generous fair ...
the harvest month began
After lapse of three years’
Daily seeking victors’ praise,
Riders raced through seven days ...
(59) “Here is music - trumpet, horn,
and pipe the Fair adorn;
Here is poetry - the bard
Seeks and gains his due reward.
(60,61) “Here romance - exhaustless theme!
vague as in a dream:
Here is wisdom - proverbs sage,
Satires, lore of seer and mage.
(62) “Here is history - tales of old,
new, though often told”.
(Durdin-Robertson, Goddesses, Chald. p. 142) on the Fair of Carman: “The present Wexford (Loch Garman)
Festival may be inspired from this source”. (Nicola Gordon Bowe quoted by Durdin-Robertson, Cult of the Goddess, p. 28)
From the epilogue to the author’s lecture at the Wexford Festival,
26th, 1974: “By participating in this Wexford
Festival, a time honoured tradition is being kept alive. Enchantment
inspiration are fostered and so - perhaps -
the Goddess is still with us”.
MACHA, Queen of Ireland; THE MACHAS. (Joyce, Soc. Hist. of Ireland, Vol.
11. p. 435) “In the Dinnsenchus, as well as in other authorities, we are
told that Oenach Macha, i.e. the annual fair
meeting at Emain (Note: Emain Macha, near Ard Macha or Armagh) was
[to commemorate] Queen Macha of the Golden
Hair, who had founded the palace there (Book of Lecan)”.
(Anne Ross, Pagan Celtic Britain,
p. 226) on the Feast of August 1st or
Lugnasad: “The Machas likewise were associated with this feast”. Note:
p. 220) “The three Machas are, according to
Irish literary tradition, Macha, wife of Nemed, Macha, wife of Crunnchu
and Macha the Red”. The third Macha,
Mongruadh, “of the Red (or Golden) Hair”, reigned as Queen of Ireland.
Her date, according to Joyce, was 377 before
TAILTIU, TAILTE. (Keating, Gen. Hist. Ireland,
93 and 235) on the princess Tailte, of the
family of Magh Mor, King of Spain: “Luighaidh Lamhfhada or the
... This prince first ordained the assembly
of Tailtean in honour to the memory of Tailte ... she took care of the
of this Luighaidh, in his minority, and had
him instructed in the maxims of government ... and accomplished him in
learning ... in gratitude for the favours he
had received, from the care and tuition of this lady, he instituted the
of Tailtean, and appointed tilts and
tournaments as a tribute to her memory. Those warlike exercises
resembled the old Olympic
games, and were observed upon the first of
August every year; a day which is still distinguished by the name of
“Tailte, name of a ... chieftainess of the Fir Bolg ... foster-mother
of Lugh from whom Cnoc Tailtean and Aonach
Tailtean (the annual August games held in her honour in Lag an Aonaigh)
... here hurling matches, etc., were held up
to recent times; marriage contracts were signed at the ancient aonach”.
(Ware, cited by O’Brien, Round Towers, p. 392) “The Tailtenean sports
... were held every year at Talten, a mountain in Meath, for
fifteen days before, and fifteen days after, the first of August”.
Soc. Hist. Ireland, Vol. II. p. 438) “The Fair of TailItenn, now Teltown on
the Blackwater, midway between Navan and Kells, was attended
by people from the whole of Ireland,
as well as from Scotland,
and was the most celebrated of all for its
athletic games and sports: corresponding closely with the Olympic,
other games of Greece. It was held yearly on
the 1st August, and on the days preceding and following. What vast
congregated during these games will be seen
from the Four Masters’ record of the last official Aenach held there
1169, by Roderick O’Conor, king of Ireland,
when the horses and chariots alone, exclusive of people on foot,
in a continuous line from Tailltenn to
Mullach-Aiti ... a distance of more than six English miles. This aenach
instituted, according to the old legend, by
the De Dannan King Lugad, or Lug of the Long Arms, to ... commemorate
Tailltiu ... Marriages formed a special
feature of this fair ... All this is remembered in the tradition to the
and the people of the place point out the
spot where the marriages were performed, which they call ‘Marriage
(McLean, Fire Fests.
p. 20) “Lammas or Lughnasad, the Celtic
festival of the beginning of the autumn is recorded as being established
the Celtic God of light, Lugh, in honour of
his foster mother, the Earth Goddess Tailltiu ... Thus we have a ritual
withdrawal of the Mother Goddess into the
Earth, an enactment in mythological symbol of the process of the
ripening of the
corn and fruits and their entering into the
earth in autumn”.
British-Irish: NÁS and BÓI. (The Dindshenchas of Nás, cited by Borlase, Dolmens,
Vol. II p. 370) on the two sisters, Nás and
Bói, of the family of the British prince Ruadri: “Nás
and Bói ... were the two wives of Lugh ...
Lugh gathered the hosts of the Gaels (Gaidel) from Tailtiu to Fiad in
‘the land of the Brugh’ [to commemorate]
those women on the first day of August in each year; so thence was the
nasad, “assembly”, of Lugh, whence Lugh-Nasad, ‘Lammas-day’,
that is, Lugh’s commemoration, or remembering, or recollection … (‘Rév.
CeIt.’ Vol. xv. p. 316)”. Note: According to the passage in the Dindshenchas
cited above the king of Britain at that time was “Caite(?)”. The same passage also states that these sisters
gave their names to Naas, in Co. Kildare, the former seat of the Kings of Leinster, and to Cnogba.
British: BLODEUWEDD. (Denning and Phillips, Mag. Phil. Vol.II.
p. 42) “In
some places at midsummer, but more properly
elsewhere at Lughnasadh, it was the custom to make a great bonfire an
hilltop and to heat in it a wheel, which was
normally a heavy oaken waggon-wheel. When this was glowing red within
tyre, it was bowled down the hilltop eagerly
watched by the community who drew from its course auguries for the
The true significance of the fiery wheel was
to symbolise the descent of the sun from its midsummer height. Besides
the festival of Lughnasadh was associated
with the myth of the marriage of Lugh to Bloddeuedd ... who was one of
forms of the Earth-Goddess”.
(Perp. Fest. Cal.) “August 1
… Lunasdae, or Lugnassad, Celtic Autumn Festival”. (Fell. of Isis Dir.) “August
1st Lughnasa …”
English: Lammas. (Church of England
Cal.) “August 1st. Lammas Day”.
(Dr. Johnson’s Dict.)
“Lammas. [This word is said by Bailey, I know
not on what authority, to be derived from a custom, by which the
of the Archbishop of York were obliged ... on
the first of August, to bring a lamb to the altar. In Scotland they are
to wean lambs on this day. It may else be
corrupted from lattermath. Dr. Johnson.
- The following is the account which the learned Hammond gives of the word. ‘Lammas,
in the Saxon hlafmaes, lafmess, i.e. loaf-mass
is so named as a feast of thanksgiving ... for the first fruits of
the corn, and seems to have been observed
with bread of new wheat …’ Works, Vol. I. p. 660. Somner and Blount
record the same derivation. In later times it
has been well observed, that lammas day,
in the Salisbury Manuals, is called benedictio Novorum fructuum; in the Red Book of
Derby, hlaf-maesse daeg; but in the Sax. Chron. hlam-maesse; that mass was a word
for festival, whence our … Candlemas, etc.; and that therefore instead of lammas quasi lamb-mass ... we may rather suppose
the ‘f’ to have been left out in course of time of general use, and thus
la-mas or hla-maesse, appears. See Gent. Mag.
Jan. 1799. p. 33 ...] The first of August”.
(Druids Cal.) “August 1. Lugnasad. Also called
Lammas ... a day for baking bread in celebration of the first fruits of the wheat harvest”.
Graeco-Roman: DEMETER and CERES. (Perp. Fest. Cal.) “August 1st. Ceres, Demeter,
Goddess of Fertility”. (Fell. of Isis Dir.) “August 1st: Demeter, Ceres,
Harvest. Reaping of good from past achievements. Thanksgiving”.
General: THE GODDESS, Source, Creatrix and Sustainer; THE
MOTHER of Rebirth; OUR LADY of the Dark Gates. Festival of Regeneration. (Lux Madriana
Cal.) “Kerea 22 (August 1) Festival of Regeneration” … (The Coming
Age, No. 11) “Regeneration. The
festivals of late summer open the great Mysteries of Life cycle which
quarter of the year. They celebrate the
Goddess as the Source of all life, the Creatrix and Sustainer of the
cycles of existence
through which the soul moves. The ultimate
revolution in the life of every soul ... turning back to the Goddess is
a subject for meditation during the late
summer and autumn.
symbol of the Festival of Regeneration is the
ear of corn ... This festival is concerned with the movement between
the resurgence of new life, celebrating the
Mother of our rebirth and the Daughter as Our Lady of the Dark Gates,
guards and guides all souls in the transition
from one life to the next. For each soul must pass through many
on this world or elsewhere ... Throughout
this journey [back to the Goddess] our Lady is watching over us, giving
and strength …
“Ears of corn and bread made from the new wheat may be offered at the Rite on this day”.
Jewish: THE VIRGIN MARY.
(Irish Catholic Dir.) “August 5th. Dedication of S. Mary of the
Snows ... Preface of B.V.M. Et te in Festivities …”
(Mrs. Jameson, Legends of the Madonna,
p. lxvi) “Santa Maria ‘delle Neve’. Our Lady
of the Snow. In Spain, St. Maria la Blanca. To this legend
of the snow the magnificent church of S.M.
Maggiore at Rome is said to owe its origin. A certain Roman patrician,
was John (Giovani Patricio), being childless,
prayed of the Virgin to direct him how best to bestow his worldly
appeared to him in a dream on the night of
the 5th of August 352, and commanded him to build a church in her
honour, on a
spot where snow would be found the next
morning. The same vision having appeared to his wife and the reigning
they repaired in procession the next morning
to the summit of Mount Esquiline, where, notwithstanding the heat of the
a large patch of ground was miraculously
covered with snow, and on it Liberius traced out with his crozier the
place of the
(Perp. Fest. Cal.) “August 10th. Yashodhara, wife of Buddha ... suggested date
600 (before this era)”.
Persian: THE PAIRIKAS.
(The Zend-Avesta, Tir Yast,
V. 8) “the Pairikas, who, in the shape of worm-stars,
fly between the earth and the heavens”.
(Commentary by Darmesteter) on “worm-stars”: “Doubtful. Shooting
stars are alluded to. Mr. Geiger remarks that
there is a stream of shooting stars falling every year just at the time
Tistrya (i.e. Sirius), in the European
climate, is supposed to be most active, on the 10th of August”. Note:
Vol. I. p. lxvi) “The Pairika corresponds in her origin (and perhaps
as to her name) to the Indian Apsaras”.
Worshipped in the pre-Zoroastrian religion, the Pairikas are the
of the Peris, the nymphs or female angels of
later Persian tradition, and also of the Parigs or Witches of
French: REASON, THE GODDESS OF REASON. (Brewer, Dict. Liberty)
of Reason (Aug. 10, 1793). The Goddess of
Reason was enthroned by the French Convention at the suggestion of
the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris was
[used] for the purpose … The procession was attended by the municipal
and national guards, while troops of ballet
girls carried torches of truth ... Gobet (the Archbishop of Paris), and
all the clergy stripped themselves of their
canonicals, and wearing red nightcaps, joined in ... So did Julien of
a Calvinistic minister”. (id. 12th ed.)
“Reason. The Goddess of Reason. The wife of Momoro the
printer was set up by the commune of Paris to represent this goddess in
in a white veil, and wearing on her head the
cap of liberty, she was carried in a chair by four men to Notre Dame de
and placed on the altar. Hymns were sung to
her and processions formed”.
(Carlyle, French Revolution,
Vol. iii. book v. 4, cited
by Brewer) “Mrs. Momoro, it is admitted, made
one of the best goddesses of Reason”. See also under November 10th.
Italian: ST. CLARE. (Church
of England Cal.) “August 11. Clare of Assisi, Virgin, 1253.”
ISIS; The Lychnapsia, The Festival of Lights, The Lights of Isis. (Witt, Isis in Graeco-Roman World, p. 92) “The ‘Lights of Isis’ were well-known. In the so-called
Calendar of Philocalus, a Latin compilation of the fourth century (of this era), the Lychnapsia
or Festival of Lights, is put on 12th August.
On this and other festal days, which foreshadow the Candlemas Day of
Isis was represented seeking her spouse in
the darkness by torch light, and her processions resembled those of
Neith at Sais
and of Bast at Bubastis, as well as what
Plato at the beginning of his Republic
as took place in honour of the local Athena
and of the Thracian Artemis Bendis. At certain times the temples of Isis
have seemed wholly ablaze with the flame of
tapers and lamps, some of which have survived until today”. (id. p. 297) “for the Lychnapsia as the birthday of Isis M.S. Salem, Journal
of Roman Studies 27 (1937) -7”. According to Plutarch (De Isid. et Osir.
12) Isis was born of the fourth intercalary day. See also under August 27th.
(Philocalus, Kal. anno 354) “August 12. Lignapsia.”
Roman: FELICITAS, HONOS, VENUS VICTRIX and VIRTUS. (Rose, O.C.D.)
“Felicitas, a goddess of good luck. She is
associated with Venus Victrix, Honos, and Virtus at Pompey’s theatre
(Fast. Amit. on 12 August)”.
Italian: ST. CLARE. (Irish Catholic
Dir.) “August 12. S. Clare, Virgin”. St. Clare, born at Assisi in 1193, was canonized by Pope Alexander
IV in 1255.
Greek: HECATE. Roman:
DIANA. (Seyffert, Dict.)
The most considerable temple of Diana at Rome
was in the Aventine, founded by Servius Tullius ... On the day of its
(August 13) the slaves had a holiday.”
Ecl. xxiii. 6) “On the Roman Festivals
(2nd half of 4th cent.) … the mid-monthly
Ides which come round with [August] … Diana claims as her own.”
Note by White: “On August 13th women whose
prayers had been answered made a torchlight procession to the grove of
(Montfaucon, Antiq. Suppl. p. 20) “The Month of August is by Ausonius thus described: ‘This Month, in which
Hecate, the daughter of Latona was born.’
... By Hecate the Daughter of Latona born in this month, is meant Diana, Daughter
of Latona, and Apollo’s
Sister. In short,
in the Calendar [of Philocalus] join’d to
these Images [by Valentine] the Birth of Diana is marked upon the Ides
(Philocalus, Kal. anno 354) “August 13. N. Dianes.”
(Esther Harding, Woman’s Myst.
p. 109) “On the thirteenth of August
there was a great festival of Hecate the moon goddess in Greece and of
her direct descendant in Rome, for the
harvest ripens earlier in these southern countries than it does farther
north. On this
day the Goddess’s aid was invoked to avert
storms which might injure the coming harvest. This festival was
by the Catholic Church. The date of August
fifteenth was chosen for celebrating the feast of the Assumption of the
Virgin. The connection between the pagan and
the Christian ceremony is a very interesting one. The special feature of
Christian festival centers round prayers
addressed to the Virgin Mary, as they formerly were to the moon
goddesses who preceded
her, to turn aside storms until the fields
are reaped of their fruits. There is a passage in the Syriac text of The Departure of My Lady Mary from this World which runs thus: ‘And the apostles also
ordered that there should be a commemoration of the Blessed one on the
of Ab (that is August), on account of the
vines bearing bunches of grapes and on account of the trees bearing
clouds of hail, bearing stones of wrath,
might not come, and the trees be broken, and the fruits, and the vines
(Maxine Sanders, Witch Queen, p. 89) on witchcraft: “What I would submit ... is that the Christians borrowed our Goddess, Diana, and transformed her into the Virgin Mary.”
Roman: THE CAMENAE. (Rose, O.C.D.)
“Camenae, Roman Goddesses, identified
since Livius Andronicus (Odissia, Fr. 1) with
the Muses. They seem however, to be water deities; they had a grove and
outside the Porta Capena ... whence the
Vestals drew water daily, and also a little shrine (aedicula,
Servius, on Aen. 1. 8., who says it was of
bronze and dedicated by Numa; its dedication day was 13 August, Fast. Antiates). Libation was made to them with milk and water”.
Dog Days end. See July 3rd.
Roman: DIANA. (Esther Harding, Woman’s
Myst. p. 130) “her (i.e. Diana’s)
chief festival was called the Festival of Candles or Torches. It was
celebrated on August the fifteenth when her
groves shone with a multitude of torches. This day is still celebrated
as a Festival
of Candles, but the torches are ... for the
Virgin Mary. It is the day of her Assumption. On this day of Diana’s old
festival it is Mary who is carried to the
heavens above, to reign there as Queen of Heaven”. See also under August
Jewish: THE VIRGIN MARY, The Feast of the Assumption. (Irish Catholic
Dir.) “August 15th. Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary ... with Octave ... Preface of B. V. M.
Et te in Assumptione said during Octave”.
(James, on Apocr. New Test.
p. 20) on the Coptic texts
of the Assumption: “All the narratives except
the Discourse of Cyril tell of a corporal assumption, and all but one
place it on the 16th Mesore (i.e. the last
(The Narrative by Joseph of Arimathea, analysis in Apocr.
New Test. p. 218 20) “Then Thomas told them … how he had been brought to the Mount of Olives and seen
the ascension of Mary and she had given him her girdle: and he
21 They all rejoiced ...
I am that Joseph ... and I have made known to all the Jews and
Gentiles what I saw with my eyes and heard
with my ears, and as long as I live I shall not cease to proclaim them.
assumption is this day reverenced and honoured throughout all the world: let us constantly
pray her that she constantly remember us …’ ” Note by James: “a mediaeval Italian composition, not
earlier, I imagine, then the thirteenth century.”
(Brewer, Dict.) “Assumption (Feast of the).
The 15th of August, so called in honour of the Virgin
was taken to heaven that day (the year 45) in
her corporeal form, being at the time seventy-five years of age”.
(Ashe, The Virgin,
200) on the Feast of the Assumption: “The
Jerusalem date, 15th August, was made obligatory by the Emperor Maurice
600, and it became general in the West
Our Lady’s Dowry,
p. 228) “The feast of the Assumption of our Lady was
reckoned by Lanfranc ... among the five
principal festivals of the year. It was our Lady’s greatest feast. Alban
proves the celebration of this feast in East
and West in the sixth century. It was appointed to be kept as a strict
by the laws of Alfred”.
(Mrs. Jameson, Legends of the Madonna, p. 318) on the Assumption, as represented in art: “ ‘Assumpta est Maria Virgo in Coelum.’
The figure of the Virgin is seen within
an almond-shaped aureole (the mandorla), not
unfrequently crowned as well as veiled, her hands joined, her white robe
round her feet (for in all the early pictures
the dress of the Virgin is white, often spangled with stars), and thus
to cleave the air upwards, while adoring
angels surround the glory of light within which she is enshrined. Such
are the figures
which are placed in sculpture over the
portals of the churches dedicated to her, as at Florence. She is not
upright, but seated on a throne, placed
within an aureole of light”.
p. 325) “6. Raphael, 1516. The Virgin is seated with the horns of the
moon, her hands joined. On each side an angel
stands bearing a flaming torch ... The two angels, or rather genii,
torches on each side, impart to the whole
something of the air of a heathen apotheosis ...
Ferrari, 1525. Mary, in a white robe spangled with stars, rises upwards
if cleaving the air in an erect position,
with her hands extended but not raised many angels, some of whom bear
her. One angel presents the end of her girdle
to St. Thomas ...
Palma Vecchio, 1535. The Virgin looks down,
not upwards, as is usual, and is in the act of taking off her girdle to
it on St. Thomas, who, with ten other
apostles, stands below ...
another Assumption by Rubens, one of the
women exhibits the miraculous flowers in her apron, or in a cloth”.
(Ashe, The Virgin,
250) “Francis Thompson’s [poem] on the
Assumption has an astonishing flash of insight; hailing the Virgin
he expresses a doubt ‘if thou art assumed to
heaven, or is heaven assumed to thee’. The same doubt arises in the
history of her relationship with the Church”.
Hebrew-Greek: CHOKMAH, SOPHIA, HAGIA SOPHIA, SANCTA SOPHIA,
The Holy Wisdom. (Ashe, The Virgin,
p. 213) “Far back, I have suggested,
Mary’s priestesses deified her as an avatar
of Wisdom ... By way of doctrine, where her numinosity lingered and its
effects on the Church’s mind were felt,
Wisdom did actually re-enter the system and blend with her.”
Under a compulsion that was never discussed, the two Marian
Dogmas (i.e. the Immaculate Conception of
1854 and the Assumption of 1950) drew Wisdom into the Liturgy of their
Proverbs 8: 22ff. became the Lesson for the
Immaculate Conception. Parts of Ecclesiasticus 24 were read at the
Thus, almost casually, Mary was conceded the
Jewish demigoddess’s attributes. Proverbs 8 was also read at the feast
of her Nativity, and Ecclesiasticus 24 at her
feast as Queen of Heaven, when she was once again the Lady hailed by
siting of several of her churches on
ground sacred to Athene was a ... continuity.
It evoked not only the pagan wisdom-goddess but others connected with
Greek Church dallied with the Mary-Wisdom
equation ... Russian churches of the same name (i.e. Sancta Sophia), at
Novgorod for instance, applied it to Mary and
expressed that. idea in their icons. They held their ‘feasts of title’
on Marian days. Orthodox Russia instituted a
special Mass combining the Holy Wisdom with the Assumption.” (Note:
Muhammad Ali, on The Koran, p. 285) on the
worship of Mary: “Justinian ... inscribes the high altar in the new
of St. Sophia with her name, Ency. Br. 11th
the Protestant mystic Jacob Boehme ... also speculated about Mary and Wisdom”.
Egyptian: Queen AMENARTUS. (Perp. Fest.
Cal.) “August 17th. Amenartus, Egyptian Queen-Initiate”.
VENUS, The Rustic Vinalia. (Seyffert, Dict.)
“Vinalia. A wine festival kept by the Romans ... (1) on April 23 ... and (2) on August 19 ( Vinalia Rustica, the country
festival of wine), when offering was made for the ripening grapes. With
was associated the worship of Venus, who as
goddess of gardens, had vineyards also under her protection”.
(Varro, Ling. Lat.
20) “The nineteenth of August was called the
Country Vinalia, because at that time a temple was dedicated to Venus
gardens were set apart for her, and then the
kitchen-gardeners went on holiday”. (id.
De Re Rust I. i. 6) “Since, as we are
told, the deities help those who call upon them, I will first invoke
... I beseech Minerva and Venus, of whom the
one protects the olive-yard and the other, the garden; and in her honour
rustic Vinalia has been established”.
Jewish: THE VIRGIN MARY; Apparition of Our Lady of Knock.
(von Daniken, Miracles of the Gods,
p. 215) “21.8.1879 Cnoc Mhuire, Ireland.
15 visionaries of various ages saw Mary
wearing a white dress and a crown”. (Pope John Paul II) at Cnoc Mhuire,
Hill of Mary, on October 1st 1979, Mary is
addressed by the Pope as “Queen of Ireland.”
Sun enters Virgo (tropical).
AEDESIA. (Perp. Fest. Cal.) “Aedesia, 5th cent.
(of this era)”. (Dict. Univ. Biog.) “Aedesia, a female philosopher of
the Neoplatonic school; famous besides for her virtue and her beauty”.
Jewish: THE VIRGIN MARY. (Irish Catholic Dir.) “August 22. Immaculate Heart
of the Blessed Virgin Mary … Preface of B.V.M. Et te in Festivitate ... Octave
Day of Assumption”.
(Perp. Fest. Cal.) “August 23. Nemesis”. Note: (Lempriere, Dict.) “Nemesis … The Greeks celebrated a festival called Nemesia in memory of deceased persons,
as the goddess Nemesis was supposed to defend the relics and memory of the dead from all insult”.
THE NYMPHS, OPS OPIFERA and STATA MATER; The
Volcanalia, in honour of Vulean and other Deities. (Seyffert, Dict.)
“Volcanus ... Juturna and Stata Mater, who
causes fires to go out, were worshipped with him as goddesses who
from fires, and a public offering was made to
them and him at the festival of the Volcanalia”.
(Rose, O.C.D., Volcanus) At the Volcanalia offerings were made also “to Juturna,
the Nymphs, Ops Opifera, and Quirinus”.
Kal. anno 354) “August 23. Volcanalici.”
Greek: MOIRA. (Lux Madriana Cal.) “Hesperis 16 (August 23). Day of Moira”. (The Coming Age, No. 11)”
Moira’s Day. This day is dedicated to the Genia of personal fate. The
threads of Moira draw all things in life
together. Her particular symbols are the wheel and the scales. This day
one for examining the direction of one’s soul
and making resolutions for the future”.
Roman: CERES; The Underworld Deities; MANIA and the Manes; First of the days
for opening the Mundus Cereris. (Rose, O.C.D.) “Mundus ... a ritual pit
... (2) The mundus Cereris,
a structure of unknown site, vaulted, divided into two
parts, and with a cover which was removed on
24th August, 5th October and 8th November, which days were religiosi, when the way was supposed open to the lower world. (Festus, 144, 145 Lindsay, quoting Cato and
Atreius Capito; Varro ap. Macrob. Sat. 1.16.18)”. (Seyffert, Dict. Manes) “On the Mons Palatinus at Rome, there was, as in other Italian towns, a deep pit with the shape of an inverted sky, known as mundus, the lowest part of which was consecrated
to the infernal deities and also to the Manes, and closed with a stone, lapis manalis,
thought to be the gate of the nether world.
This stone was lifted up three times a year ... and the Manes were then
to rise to the upper world”.
(Frazer, on Ovid, Fasti, p. 419) “the mundus
was a circular
aperture in the middle of the floor, which
gave access to a lower vault or crypt and down which the offerings could
into the vault”. (id.)
“according to Festus, or rather his authority,
Atreius Capito ... the lower part of the
structure (which I have called the vault or crypt) was sacred to the
of the dead (di manes) who would naturally be able to issue forth and roam about the
city if the aperture were uncovered. Hence the three days on which the mundus stood
open, and hell was let loose, were ‘religious’ days; no public business might be transacted on them.
“W. Warde Fowler ... may well have been right in his assumption
(...destitute, however, of ancient authority) that the mundus was closed by the stone
called lapis manalis, which may mean ‘the ghost stone’; for we are told
by Festus that the stone ‘was esteemed the Gate of Hell (Ostium Orci) through
which the souls of the underground folk, who are called ghosts (manes), pass to the folk above’.
“In 1914 Giacomo
Boni discovered on the Palatine a subterranean structure which he identified with the mundus,
and the identification appears to be
generally regarded as at least probable. The structure is situated under
portion of the peristyle of the Flavian
(Neumann, The Great Mother,
p. 283) “the Mater Larum in her character of Mania is connected with mundus and wall, and with the centre of the city that lies deep in the earth”.
Roman: OPS; The Opeconsiva. (Seyffert, Dict.) “Ops (abundance, plenty). The old Italian goddess of fertility
... As goddess of sowing and reaping she had, under the name of Consivia, on August
25th a special festival, the Opeconsiva, at which however only the Vestals and one
of the pontifices could be present. As her abode was in the earth, her worshippers
invoked her while seated and touching the ground (Macrobius, Saturnalia, i, 10)”.
(Varro, Ling. Lat.
21) “The day named Opeconsiva is so called
from Ops Consiva ‘Lady Bountiful the Planter’, whose shrine is
in the Regia; it is so restricted in size
that no one may enter it except the Vestal Virgins and the state
Egyptian: ISIS. (Perp. Fest. Cal.) “August 25. Isis, Divine Life, the Great
Mother”. (Fell. of Isis Dir.) “August 25th. Festival of Isis”.
Finnish: ILMATAR, LUONNOTAR, The Water Mother. (Catherine
“Ilmatar, also known as Luonnotar or the Water Mother, was the
Creatrix of the World. Upon her knees the
duck laid the six golden eggs and the one iron egg from which the world
(the seven planets?). As W. F. Kirby says in
his notes to ‘Kalevala’ runo 1, ‘This is a combined version
of the widespread cosmogonical myths of the
Divine Spirit brooding over the waters of chaos, and the Mundane Egg’.
“Ilmatar’s feast day is August 26th”.
Egyptian: NUT and ISIS. The Fourth Intercalary Day, The
Nativity of Isis. (Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride,
355 F) on the five intercalary
days: “The Egyptians even now call these days
intercalated and celebrate them as the birthdays of the deities ... On
the fourth day Isis was born in the regions
that are ever moist”.
Dawn of Civil.
p. 208) an the year of the Egyptians: “They intercalated ...
after the twelfth month of each year and
before the first day of the ensuing year, five epagomenal days, which
the ‘five days over and above the year’ ...
[inserted] to permit Nuit to give birth to all her children. These
days constituted, at the end of the ‘great
year’, a ‘little month’. This is the name still given by
the Copts to the five epagomenal days”.
Part 1, p. 282) “The Egyptian or Alexandrian months. The months
... consisting of 30 days each, making only
360 days, there were added, to make the year complete, 365 days; five
every common year, and also six to every
bissextile. The five days took place, every common year, on the 24th of
in the leap-years the 25th of the same
Egyptian: NUT and NEPHTHYS. The Fifth Intercalary Day, The Nativity of Nephthys.
(Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride,
355 F) on the five intercalary days: “and on
the fifth [was born] Nephthys, to whom they
gave the name of Finality (Teleuté) and of Aphrodite, and some also the
name of Victory (Niké)”.
Tartar: THE HOLY MARES OF XANADU. (Marco Polo, Travels, p. 109) on the holy
white mares of Shang-tu (X-anadu): “Theastrologers and idolaters have
the Great Khan (i.e. Kubilai Khan), that he
must make a libation of the milk of these mares every year on the 28th
flinging it into the air and on the earth, so
that the spirits may have their share to drink. They must have this, it
in order that they may guard all his
possessions, also the men and women, beasts, birds, crops, and
Egyptian: The New Year of the fixed Alexandrian Calendar, Thoth 1. (Frazer, Golden Bough abgd., p. 373)
“it is necessary to bear in mind that on account of the movable year of
old Egyptian calendar the true or
astronomical dates of the official festivals must have varied from year
to year, at least
until the adoption of the fixed Alexandrian
year in 30 (before this era). From that time onward, apparently, the
the festivals were by the new calendar, and
so ceased to rotate throughout the length of the solar year. At all
writing about the end of the first century,
implies that they were then fixed, not movable; for though he does not
the Alexandrian calendar, he clearly dates
his festivals by it. Moreover, the long festal calendar at Esne, an
of the Imperial age, is obviously based on
the fixed Alexandrian year; for it assigns the mark for New Year’s Day
the day which corresponds to the twenty-ninth
of August, which was the first day of the Alexandrian year, and its
to the rising of
the Nile, the position of the sun, and the operations
of agriculture are all in harmony with this
supposition. Thus we may take it as fairly certain that from 30 (before
onwards the Egyptian festivals were
stationary in the solar year”.
Antiq. Suppl. p. 237) “The Months begin with Thoth, which answers to our September; this is the common Opinion of the Ancients, and the Chronologists.
Yet Cosmos, an Egyptian Monk, who lived in the time of the Emperor Justinian, doth
in two Places give us Pharmuthis, which answers to our April, for the first Month.”
(Perp. Fest. Cal.)
“August 29th. Egyptian New Year’s Day”. (Fell. of Isis Dir.)
29th: Egyptian New Year. Abundance,
fertility, success. Harvest of achievement. Week of joy and thanksgiving
HATHOR, The Nativity
of Hathor. (Veronica Ions, Egy. Myth.,
p. 79) on the worship of Hathor: “Great
festivals were celebrated in the temple of
Dendera, above all on New Year’s Day, which was the anniversary of her
Before dawn the ,Priestesses would bring
Hathor’s image out on to the terrace to expose it to the rays of the
sun. The rejoicing that followed was a
pretext for a veritable carnival, and the day ended in song and
(Maspero, Dawn of Civil.
p. 322) on a festival at Dendera, from Dümichen, Dendera.
“The gods of heaven exclaim ‘Ah! Ah!’ in
satisfaction, the inhabitants of the earth are full of gladness,
the Hathors beat their tabors, the great
ladies wave their mystic whips, all those who are gathered together in
the town are
drunk with wine and crowned with flowers; the
tradespeople of the place walk joyously about, their heads scented with
oils, all the children rejoice in honour of
the goddess, from
the rising to the setting of the sun.”
(Dufresnoy, Chron. Tables,
Part 1. p. 282) “The Egyptian, or Alexandrian
months: 1. Thoth The beginning of those months, according to the Roman
Calendar: The common year (1. Thoth) August
29th; Bissextile year, August 30th”.
Egyptian: For the New Year in bissextile or leap year see under August 29th (Dufresnoy).
Greek: Charisteria. (Perp.
Fest. Cal.) “August 30th. Charisteria. Thanksgiving”.
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